Review of: Arkansas State

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Arkansas State

Buchen Sie jetzt mit Choice Hotels in der Nähe von Arkansas State University, Arkansas in State University, AR. Mit großartigen Annehmlichkeiten und Zimmern​. Die Arkansas State University (auch ASU genannt) ist eine staatliche Universität in Jonesboro im Nordosten des US-Bundesstaates Arkansas. Mit etwa Arkansas State Red Wolves Live Ticker (und kostenlos Übertragung Video Live-​Stream sehen im Internet), Spielplan und Ergebnisse von allen basketball.

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Arkansas State

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Retrieved November 29, Texas State University. Archived from the original on May 9, Retrieved December 27, Archived from the original on April 16, Retrieved April 15, Project Vote Smart.

Retrieved April 12, Archived from the original on January 3, Sun Belt Conference. Archived from the original on June 16, The Spruce. April 4, Retrieved December 19, Archived from the original on September 24, Archived from the original on December 25, Retrieved July 12, Retrieved April 16, Price Marshall".

Federal Judicial Center. The Carolina Panthers. Archived from the original on December 20, Archived from the original on September 30, Archived from the original on December 21, Retrieved December 29, Archived from the original on October 26, Scripps Networks.

Retrieved October 14, Archived from the original on October 17, Archived from the original on September 6, The Baton Rouge Advocate.

Retrieved April 10, The Arkansas Times. Retrieved April 5, CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 7, Poetry Foundation.

Retrieved January 7, United States portal. Located in : Jonesboro, Arkansas. None of these nationalities stayed long at farm labor; the Chinese especially quickly became small merchants in towns around the Delta.

Many Chinese became such successful merchants in small towns that they were able to educate their children at college.

Some early 20th-century immigration included people from eastern Europe. Together, these immigrants made the Delta more diverse than the rest of the state.

In the same years, some black migrants moved into the area because of opportunities to develop the bottomlands and own their own property.

Construction of railroads enabled more farmers to get their products to market. It also brought new development into different parts of the state, including the Ozarks, where some areas were developed as resorts.

In a few years at the end of the 19th century, for instance, Eureka Springs in Carroll County grew to 10, people, rapidly becoming a tourist destination and the fourth-largest city of the state.

It featured newly constructed, elegant resort hotels and spas planned around its natural springs, considered to have healthful properties.

The town's attractions included horse racing and other entertainment. It appealed to a wide variety of classes, becoming almost as popular as Hot Springs.

In the late s, the worsening agricultural depression catalyzed Populist and third party movements, leading to interracial coalitions.

Struggling to stay in power, in the s the Democrats in Arkansas followed other Southern states in passing legislation and constitutional amendments that disfranchised blacks and poor whites.

In state legislators passed a requirement for a literacy test , knowing it would exclude many blacks and whites. In , they amended the state constitution to require a poll tax and more complex residency requirements, both of which adversely affected poor people and sharecroppers, forcing most blacks and many poor whites from voter rolls.

By the Democratic Party expanded use of the white primary in county and state elections, further denying blacks a part in the political process.

Only in the primary was there any competition among candidates, as Democrats held all the power. The state was a Democratic one-party state for decades, until after passage of the federal Civil Rights Act of and Voting Rights Act of to enforce constitutional rights.

Between and , Arkansas began to receive a small immigration of German , Slovak , and Scots-Irish from Europe. The German and Slovak peoples settled in the eastern part of the state known as the Prairie , and the Irish founded small communities in the southeast part of the state.

The Germans were mostly Lutheran and the Slovaks were primarily Catholic. They were seeking better conditions of payment and accounting from white landowners of the area cotton plantations.

Whites resisted any change and often tried to break up their meetings. On September 30, , two white men, including a local deputy, tried to break up a meeting of black sharecroppers who were trying to organize a farmers' union.

After a white deputy was killed in a confrontation with guards at the meeting, word spread to town and around the area.

Governor Charles Hillman Brough requested federal troops to stop what was called the Elaine massacre. White mobs spread throughout the county, killing an estimated blacks before most of the violence was suppressed after October 1.

The governor accompanied the troops to the scene; their use had been approved by U. President Woodrow Wilson.

Based on the order of President Franklin D. Roosevelt given shortly after Imperial Japan 's attack on Pearl Harbor , nearly 16, Japanese Americans were forcibly removed from the West Coast of the United States and incarcerated in two internment camp located in the Arkansas Delta.

After the Supreme Court 's decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas in that segregation in public schools is unconstitutional, some students worked to integrate schools in the state.

The Little Rock Nine brought Arkansas to national attention in when the Federal government had to intervene to protect African-American students trying to integrate a high school in the Arkansas capital.

After attempting three times to contact Faubus, President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent troops from the active-duty st Airborne Division to escort and protect the African-American students as they entered school on September 25, In defiance of federal court orders to integrate, the governor and city of Little Rock decided to close the high schools for the remainder of the school year.

By the fall of , the Little Rock high schools were completely integrated. Bill Clinton , the 42nd president of the United States, was born in Hope.

Before his presidency, Clinton served as the 40th and 42nd governor of Arkansas , a total of nearly 12 years.

Little Rock has been Arkansas's capital city since when it replaced Arkansas Post as the capital of the Territory of Arkansas. Today, the Little Rock—North Little Rock—Conway metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a population of , in The Fayetteville—Springdale—Rogers Metropolitan Area is the second-largest metropolitan area in Arkansas, growing at the fastest rate due to the influx of businesses and the growth of the University of Arkansas and Walmart.

The state has eight cities with populations above 50, based on census. Of these, only Fort Smith and Jonesboro are outside the two largest metropolitan areas.

As of , Arkansas has an estimated population of 3,, The state recorded growth in each successive decade, although it gradually slowed in the 20th century.

It recorded population losses in the and Censuses. This outmigration was a result of multiple factors, including farm mechanization, decreasing labor demand, and young educated people leaving the state due to a lack of non-farming industry in the state.

Minority group data also approximates national averages. There are fewer people in Arkansas of Hispanic or Latino origin than the national average.

In terms of race and ethnicity, the state was Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 6. As of , European Americans have a strong presence in the northwestern Ozarks and the central part of the state.

African Americans live mainly in the southern and eastern parts of the state. Arkansans of Irish, English and German ancestry are mostly found in the far northwestern Ozarks near the Missouri border.

English and Scots-Irish immigrants settled throughout the backcountry of the South and in the more mountainous areas.

Americans of English stock are found throughout the state. A survey of the principal ancestries of Arkansas's residents revealed the following: [89].

Their families have been in the state so long, in many cases since before statehood, that they choose to identify simply as having American ancestry or do not in fact know their own ancestry.

Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original 13 colonies and for this reason many of them today simply claim American ancestry. Many people who identify themselves as Irish descent are in fact of Scots-Irish descent.

According to the — American Community Survey, About 4. About 0. Arkansas, like most other Southern states, is part of the Bible Belt and is predominantly Protestant.

The largest denominations by number of adherents in were the Southern Baptist Convention with ,; the United Methodist Church with ,; non-denominational Evangelical Protestants with ,; the Catholic Church with ,; and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 31, There are some residents of the state who live by other religions such as Islam , Judaism , Wicca , Paganism , Hinduism , Buddhism or who claim no religious affiliation.

Once a state with a cashless society in the uplands and plantation agriculture in the lowlands, Arkansas's economy has evolved and diversified.

Its industrial outputs are food processing, electric equipment, fabricated metal products, machinery, and paper products.

Mines in Arkansas produce natural gas, oil, crushed stone, bromine, and vanadium. As of October , the state's unemployment rate is 3.

Arkansas's earliest industries were fur trading and agriculture, with development of cotton plantations in the areas near the Mississippi River.

They were dependent on slave labor through the American Civil War. Today only about three percent of the population are employed in the agricultural sector, [] it remains a major part of the state's economy, ranking 13th in the nation in the value of products sold.

Bauxite was formerly a large part of the state's economy, mined mostly around Saline County. Tourism is also very important to the Arkansas economy; the official state nickname "The Natural State" was created for state tourism advertising in the s, and is still used to this day.

The state maintains 52 state parks and the National Park Service maintains seven properties in Arkansas. The culture of Arkansas includes distinct cuisine, dialect, and traditional festivals.

Sports are also very important to the culture of Arkansas, ranging from football, baseball, and basketball to hunting and fishing. Perhaps the best-known piece of Arkansas's culture is the stereotype of its citizens as shiftless hillbillies.

Art and history museums display pieces of cultural value for Arkansans and tourists to enjoy. Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art in Bentonville was visited by , people in , its first year.

Arkansas features a variety of native music across the state, ranging from the blues heritage of West Memphis , Pine Bluff , Helena—West Helena to rockabilly , bluegrass , and folk music from the Ozarks.

The Ozark Folk Festival in Mountain View is a celebration of Ozark culture and often features folk and bluegrass musicians. Sports have become an integral part of the culture of Arkansas, and her residents enjoy participating in and spectating various events throughout the year.

Team sports and especially collegiate football have been important to Arkansans. College football in Arkansas began from humble beginnings.

The University of Arkansas first fielded a team in when football was a very dangerous game. Recent studies of the damage to team members from the concussions common in football make it clear that the danger persists.

High school football also began to grow in Arkansas in the early 20th century. Over the years, many Arkansans have looked to the Razorbacks football team as the public image of the state.

Although the University of Arkansas is based in Fayetteville , the Razorbacks have always played at least one game per season at War Memorial Stadium in Little Rock in an effort to keep fan support in central and south Arkansas.

The two schools have never played each other, due to the University of Arkansas's policy of not playing intrastate games.

Two minor league teams are based in the state. Both teams compete in the Texas League. Related to the state's frontier past, hunting continues in the state.

The state created the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission in to regulate hunting and enforce those regulations. Fishing has always been popular in Arkansas, and the sport and the state have benefited from the creation of reservoirs across the state.

Following the completion of Norfork Dam , the Norfork Tailwater and the White River have become a destination for trout fishers.

Several smaller retirement communities such as Bull Shoals , Hot Springs Village , and Fairfield Bay have flourished due to their position on a fishing lake.

The Buffalo National River has been preserved in its natural state by the National Park Service and is frequented by fly fishers annually.

As of , Arkansas, as with many Southern states, has a high incidence of premature death, infant mortality, cardiovascular deaths, and occupational fatalities compared to the rest of the United States.

The percentage of uninsured in Arkansas dropped from The Arkansas Clean Indoor Air Act went into effect in , a statewide smoking ban excluding bars and some restaurants.

Healthcare in Arkansas is provided by a network of hospitals as members of the Arkansas Hospital Association. Arkansas has 1, state-funded kindergartens, elementary, junior and senior high schools.

The state supports a network of public universities and colleges, including two major university systems: Arkansas State University System and University of Arkansas System.

The University of Arkansas , flagship campus of the University of Arkansas System in Fayetteville was ranked 63 among public schools in the nation by U.

It is also home to 11 private colleges and universities including Hendrix College , one of the nation's top liberal arts colleges, according to U.

In the s the state required all children to attend public schools. The school year was set at days, although some areas were unable to meet that requirement.

Generally prohibited in the West at large, school corporal punishment is not unusual in Arkansas, with 20, public school students [] paddled at least one time, according to government data for the — school year.

Arkansas is one of the most under-educated states in the Union. It ranks near the bottom in terms of percentage of the population with either a high school or college degree.

The state's educational system has a history of under-funding, low teachers' salaries and political meddling in the curriculum.

Educational statistics during these early days are fragmentary and unreliable. Many counties did not submit full reports to the secretary of state who did double-duty as commissioner of common schools.

However, the percentage of whites over twenty years of age who were illiterate was given as:. In Arkansas students earned an average score of These results were expected due to the large increase in the number of students taking the exam since the establishment of the Academic Challenge Scholarship.

Arkansas ranks as the 32nd smartest state on the Morgan Quitno Smartest State Award, 44th in percentage of residents with at least a high school diploma, and 48th in percentage of bachelor's degree attainment.

As an organized territory, and later in the early days of statehood, education was funded by the sales of federally controlled public lands.

This system was inadequate and prone to local graft. In an message to the legislature, Governor Elias N. Conway said, "We have a common-school law intended as a system to establish common schools in all part of the state; but for the want of adequate means there are very few in operation under this law.

In , the state legislature was still controlled by ex-Confederates. It passed a Common Schools Law that allowed public funded but limited schools to white children.

The legislature banned former Confederates and passed a more wide-ranging law detailing funding and administrative issues and allowing black children to attend school.

In furtherance of this, the postwar state constitution was the first to permit a personal-property tax to fund the lands and buildings for public schools.

With the elections, the first county school commissioners took office. Arkansas had one of the first paved roads, the Dollarway Road , and one of the first members of the Interstate Highway System.

The state maintains a large system of state highways today, in addition to eight Interstates and 20 U. This segment of I currently follows mostly the same route as the former section of I that extended north of I Arkansas also benefits from the use of its rivers for commerce.

The Mississippi River and Arkansas River are both major rivers. Public transit and community transport services for the elderly or those with developmental disabilities are provided by agencies such as the Central Arkansas Transit Authority and the Ozark Regional Transit , organizations that are part of the Arkansas Transit Association.

As with the federal government of the United States, political power in Arkansas is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.

Each officer's term is four years long. Office holders are term-limited to two full terms plus any partial terms before the first full term.

Arkansas governors served two-year terms until a referendum lengthened the term to four years, effective with the general election.

In Arkansas, the lieutenant governor is elected separately from the governor and thus can be from a different political party. The Arkansas General Assembly is the state's bicameral bodies of legislators, composed of the Senate and House of Representatives.

The Senate contains 35 members from districts of approximately equal population. These districts are redrawn decennially with each US census, and in election years ending in "2", the entire body is put up for reelection.

Following the election, half of the seats are designated as two-year seats and are up for reelection again in two years, these "half-terms" do not count against a legislator's term limits.

The remaining half serve a full four-year term. This staggers elections such that half the body is up for re-election every two years and allows for complete body turnover following redistricting.

Arkansas House members can serve a maximum of three two-year terms. House districts are redistricted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment.

Following the elections, Republicans gained a 51—49 majority in the House of Representatives. The Republican Party majority status in the Arkansas State House of Representatives following the elections is the party's first since Arkansas was the last state of the old Confederacy to never have Republicans control either chamber of its house since the Civil War.

Following the term limits changes, studies have shown that lobbyists have become less influential in state politics.

Legislative staff, not subject to term limits, have acquired additional power and influence due to the high rate of elected official turnover.

Most cases begin in district court, which is subdivided into state district court and local district court.

State district courts exercise district-wide jurisdiction over the districts created by the General Assembly, and local district courts are presided over by part-time judges who may privately practice law.

There are 28 judicial circuits of Circuit Court, with each contains five subdivisions: criminal, civil, probate, domestic relations, and juvenile court.

The jurisdiction of the Arkansas Court of Appeals is determined by the Arkansas Supreme Court, and there is no right of appeal from the Court of Appeals to the high court.

The Arkansas Supreme Court can review Court of Appeals cases upon application by either a party to the litigation, upon request by the Court of Appeals, or if the Arkansas Supreme Court feels the case should have been initially assigned to it.

The twelve judges of the Arkansas Court of Appeals are elected from judicial districts to renewable six-year terms.

The Arkansas Supreme Court is the court of last resort in the state, composed of seven justices elected to eight-year terms.

Established by the Arkansas Constitution in , the court's decisions can be appealed to only the Supreme Court of the United States.

Both Arkansas's U. The state has four seats in U. House of Representatives. Arkansas governor Bill Clinton brought national attention to the state with a long speech at the Democratic National Convention endorsing Michael Dukakis.

Some journalists suggested the speech was a threat to his ambitions; Clinton defined it "a comedy of error, just one of those fluky things".

Presenting himself as a "New Democrat" and using incumbent George H. Bush 's broken promise against him, Clinton won the presidential election Most Republican strength traditionally lay mainly in the northwestern part of the state, particularly Fort Smith and Bentonville , as well as North Central Arkansas around the Mountain Home area.

In the latter area, Republicans have been known to get 90 percent or more of the vote, while the rest of the state was more Democratic.

After , Republican strength expanded further to the Northeast and Southwest and into the Little Rock suburbs.

The Democrats are mostly concentrated to central Little Rock, the Mississippi Delta, the Pine Bluff area, and the areas around the southern border with Louisiana.

Arkansas has elected only three Republicans to the U. Before , the General Assembly had not been controlled by the Republican Party since Reconstruction, with the GOP holding a seat majority in the state House and a seat of 35 in the state Senate following victories in Arkansas was one of just three states among the states of the former Confederacy that sent two Democrats to the U.

Senate the others being Florida and Virginia for any period during the first decade of the 21st century. In , Republicans captured three of the state's four seats in the U.

In , Republicans won election for all four House seats. Arkansas held the distinction of having a U. In , the last Democrat in Arkansas's congressional delegation, Mark Pryor, was defeated in his campaign to win a third term in the U.

Senate, leaving the entire congressional delegation in GOP hands for the first time since Reconstruction. Reflecting the state's large evangelical population, the state has a strong social conservative bent.

Wade is ever overturned. An anti-hate crimes measure passed the state Senate in but failed before a House panel; a similar bill failed in The forests of Arkansas and the Ozark mountain region have provided cover for clandestine hate groups.

White nationalist groups such as The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord had a compound in the Ozarks in the s, later raided by the authorities.

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